This capital required overseas investments outside of Europe to be productive and political control had to be expanded overseas to protect the investments. [16], She then discusses scientific racism, and its role in colonialist imperialism, itself characterized by unlimited territorial and economic expansion. Biography []. Few ideologies have won enough prominence to survive the hard competitive struggle of persuasion, and only two have come out on top and essentially defeated all others: the ideology which interprets history as an economic struggle of classes, and the other that interprets history as a natural fight of races. Hannah Arendt On The Holocaust. Terror as we know it today strikes without any preliminary provocation, its victims are innocent even from the point of view of the persecutor. The Origins of Totalitarianism was first published in English in 1951. These movements are hostile to the state and antiparliamentarist and gradually institutionalize anti-Semitism and other kinds of racism. Here, Arendt discusses the transformation of classes into masses, the role of propaganda in dealing with the non-totalitarian world, and the use of terror, essential to this form of government. The totalitarian mass leaders based their propaganda on the correct psychological assumption that, under such conditions, one could make people believe the most fantastic statements one day, and trust that if the next day they were given irrefutable proof of their falsehood, they would take refuge in cynicism; instead of deserting the leaders who had lied to them, they would protest that they had known all along that the statement was a lie and would admire the leaders for their superior tactical cleverness.”, “The ideal subject of totalitarian rule is not the convinced Nazi or the convinced Communist, but people for whom the distinction between fact and fiction (i.e., the reality of experience) and the distinction between true and false (i.e., the standards of thought) no longer exist.”, “Before mass leaders seize the power to fit reality to their lies, their propaganda is marked by its extreme contempt for facts as such, for in their opinion fact depends entirely on the power of man who can fabricate it.”, “Caution in handling generally accepted opinions that claim to explain whole trends of history is especially important for the historian of modern times, because the last century has produced an abundance of ideologies that pretend to be keys to history but are actually nothing but desperate efforts to escape responsibility.”, “One of the greatest advantages of the totalitarian elites of the twenties and thirties was to turn any statement of fact into a question of motive.”, “There is hardly a better way to avoid discussion than by releasing an argument from the control of the present and by saying that only the future will reveal its merits.”, “True goal of totalitarian propaganda is not persuasion, but organization of the polity. In her study of the state of modern humanity, Hannah Arendt considers humankind from the perspective of the actions of which it is capable. Read more . It consequently turned in all directions, haphazardly and unpredictably, incapable of assuming an air of healthy indifference toward anything under the sun.”, “Equality of condition, though it is certainly a basic requirement for justice, is nevertheless among the greatest and most uncertain ventures of modern mankind. — Hannah Arendt, buch Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft. Hannah Arendt (Linden, Hannover, 14. listopada 1906. But far beyond the boundaries within which race-thinking and class-thinking have developed into obligatory patterns of thought, free public opinion has adopted them to such an extent that not only intellectuals but great masses of people will no longer accept a presentation of past or present facts that is not in agreement with either of these views.”, “The truth is that the masses grew out of the fragments of a highly atomized society whose competitive structure and concomitant loneliness of the individual had been held in check only through membership in a class. ‪Stanford, Princeton, Yale, University of Chicago, etc.‬ - ‪‪Cited by 293,629‬‬ - ‪political theory‬ - ‪philosophy‬ - ‪political philosophy‬ — Hannah Arendt, buch Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft. [10][8] A key concept arising from this book, was the application of Kant's phrase "Radical Evil",[11] which she applied to the men who created and carried out such tyranny and their depiction of their victims as "Superfluous People". Was heißt persönliche. Hannah Arendt und das Problem des Urteilens’, in C. Kupke et al. On the ‘civil war’ among intellectuals in New York, which was caused by Arendt's report, see, for example, Anthony Grafton, Arendt und Eichmann am Esstisch , in: G. Smith (note 5), 57. Russian practice, on the other hand, is even more "advanced" than the German in one respect: arbitrariness of terror is not even limited by racial differentiation, while the old class categories have long since been discarded, so that anybody in Russia may suddenly become a victim of the police terror. 752. Imperialismus. Die verborgene Tradition. ... Mass propaganda discovered that its audience was ready at all times to believe the worst, no matter how absurd, and did not particularly object to being deceived because it held every statement to be a lie anyhow. Elements and origins of totalitarian rule) is a book by Hannah Arendt which classed Nazism and Stalinism as totalitarian movements. A second, enlarged edition was published in 1958, and contained two additional chapters, replacing her original "Concluding Remarks". The book describes the various preconditions and subsequent rise of anti-Semitism in central, eastern, and western Europe in the early-to-mid 19th century; then examines the New Imperialism, from 1884 to the start of the First World War (1914–18); then traces the emergence of racism as an ideology, and its modern application as an “ideological weapon for imperialism”, by the Boers during the Great Trek in the early 19th century (1830s–40s). — Hannah Arendt, buch Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft Quelle: The Origins of Totalitarianism „A mixture of gullibility and cynicism had been an outstanding characteristic of mob mentality before it became an everyday phenomenon of masses. Habermas extends this critique in his writings on functional reductionism in the life-world in his Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. [17], Arendt discusses the use of front organizations, fake governmental agencies, and esoteric doctrines as a means of concealing the radical nature of totalitarian aims from the non-totalitarian world. First german edition of which there were no grand papier (deluxe) copies. [22] Wasserstein cited Arendt's systematic internalization of the various anti-Semitic and Nazi sources and books she was familiar with, which led to the use of many of these sources as authorities in the book,[23] although this has not been substantiated by other Arendt scholars. [6], The Origins of Totalitarianism, like many of Arendt's books is structured as three essays, "Antisemitism", "Imperialism" and "Totalitarianism". - über Adolf Eichmann, in: Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem, 2004, S. 76 Hannah Arendt. Such a man was Zola!”, “the last century has produced an abundance of ideologies that pretend to be keys to history but are actually nothing but desperate efforts to escape responsibility.”, “Imperialism was born when the ruling class in capitalist production came up against national limitations to its economic expansion. The Origins of Totalitarianism [Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft] (revised ed.). Hannah Arendt On The Holocaust books. [citation needed], Historian Emmanuelle Saada disputes Arendt's work and in general scholarly consensus, that the rise of scientific racism directly correlates with the rise of colonialist imperialism. A second, enlarged edition was published in 1958, and contained two additional chapters, replacing her original "Concluding Remarks". On the one hand, the Bolshevik system, unlike the Nazis, never admitted theoretically that it could practice terror against innocent people, and though in view of certain practices this may look like hypocrisy, it makes quite a difference. Lutz Fiedler, HU Berlin. “The point is that both Hitler and Stalin held out promises of stability in order to hide their intention … Saada contests that there is little evidence to support that ideas like those of Arthur de Gobineau, whom Arendt explicitly mentions, hold an important place in the scientific justification of European colonialism. The more equal conditions are, the less explanation there is for the differences that actually exist between people; and thus all the more unequal do individuals and groups become. 49 people found this helpful. The consistent persecution of every higher form of intellectual activity by the new mass leaders springs from more than their natural resentment against everything they cannot understand. It is as though mankind had divided itself between those who believe in human omnipotence (who think that everything is possible if one knows how to organize masses for it) and those for whom powerlessness has become the major experience of their lives.”, “That Hegelian dialectics should provide a wonderful instrument for always being right, because they permit the interpretations of all defeats as the beginning of victory, is obvious. Hannah Arendt war eine jüdische deutsch-US-amerikanische politische Theoretikerin und Publizistin. Hannah Arendt - der Banalität des Eichmann in Jerusalem: Ihr Denken veränderte. The bourgeoisie turned to politics out of economic necessity; for if it did not want to give up the capitalist system whose inherent law is constant economic growth, it had to impose this law upon its home governments and to proclaim expansion to be an ultimate political goal of foreign policy.”, “To them, violence, power, cruelty, were the supreme capacities of men who had definitely lost their place in the universe and were much too proud to long for a power theory that would safely bring them back and reintegrate them into the world. Johanna [1] Hannah Arendt (Linden, Hannover, 14. oktobar 1906.- New York, 4. decembar 1975. - New York, 4. prosinca 1975. ), bila je njemačka filozofkinja.. Životopis. Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft (1951) Opkomst van revolutionaire raden (1963) The Tragedy of the Commons (1968) Val van de Berlijnse Muur. We are not concerned here with the ultimate consequence of rule by terror—namely, that nobody, not even the executors, can ever be free of fear; in our context we are dealing merely with the arbitrariness by which victims are chosen, and for this it is decisive that they are objectively innocent, that they are chosen regardless of what they may or may not have done.”, “Since the peace treaties of 1919 and 1920, the refugees and the stateless have attached themselves like a curse to all the newly established states on earth which were created in the image of the nation-state.”, “...the solution to the Jewish question merely produced a new category of refugees, the Arabs, thereby increasing the number of the stateless and rightless by another 700,000 to 800,000 people.”, “Revolutionary action more often than not was a theatrical concession to the desires of violently discontented masses rather than an actual battle for power.”. Totale Herrschaft: Hannah Arendt / Elemente und Ursprünge. Hannah Arendt war eine jüdische deutsch-amerikanische politische Theoretikerin und Publizistin. She then examines "continental imperialism" (pan-Germanism and pan-Slavism) and the emergence of "movements" substituting themselves to the political parties. James McFarland, Vanderbilt University. Click Get Books for download free ebooks. Beszállítói készleten 41 pont 5 - 10 munkanap. The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) Talks of Chancellor Kohl with Walesa (1989) Excerpt From Diary of Chernyaev (1989) Rede von Willy Brandt am 10. ), njemačka filozofkinja. 623ff.] [2] Chapter Thirteen was titled "Ideology and Terror: A novel form of government", which she had published separately in 1953. Buy Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft: Antisemitismus. The Origins of Totalitarianism (German Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft, i.e. This was the case in Nazi Germany when full terror was directed against Jews, i.e., against people with certain common characteristics which were independent of their specific behavior. Arendt is widely considered one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. When she speaks of human existence bound to political action and participation, she often limits it to the ‘civilized world,’ which has to be distinguished [16.Hannah, Arendt, Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft. Arendt concludes that while Italian Fascism was a nationalist authoritarian movement, Nazism and Stalinism were totalitarian movements that sought to eliminate all restraints upon the power of the movement. Coming from the class-ridden society of the nation-state, whose cracks had been cemented with nationalistic sentiment, it is only natural that these masses, in the first helplessness of their new experience, have tended toward an especially violent nationalism, to which mass leaders have yielded against their own instincts and purposes for purely demagogic reasons.”, “Factuality itself depends for its continued existence upon the existence of the nontotalitarian world.”, “What proved so attractive was that terrorism had become a kind of philosophy through which to express frustration, resentment, and blind hatred, a kind of political expressionism which used bombs to express oneself, which watched delightedly the publicity given to resounding deeds and was absolutely willing to pay the price of life for having succeeded in forcing the recognition of one’s existence on the normal strata of society.”, “The most striking difference between ancient and modern sophists is that the ancients were satisfied with a passing victory of the argument at the expense of truth, whereas the moderns want a more lasting victory at the expense of reality”, “A fundamental difference between modern dictatorships and all other tyrannies of the past is that terror is no longer used as a means to exterminate and frighten opponents, but as an instrument to rule masses of people who are perfectly obedient. [24], Such scholars as Jürgen Habermas supported Arendt in her 20th century criticism of totalitarian readings of Marxism. [15] Nazi Germany would later exploit this antisemitism, and targeted the Jewry which was construed, among other things, as a proxy for the nation-state. Quotes By Hannah Arendt. Editorial assistant, Sechs Essays. 10 949 Ft 10 402 Ft. Kosárba. Intellectual, spiritual, and artistic initiative is as dangerous to totalitarianism as the gangster initiative of the mob, and both are more dangerous than mere political opposition. A German translation was published in 1955 as Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft ("Elements and Origins of Totalitarian Rule").