One of the take-home messages from this Special Issue is that some form of European Cultural Psychology can be identified, although perhaps not recognised as such yet. That is the root of most European values: egalitarianism – both in everyday relations and in economic system; labour law; quite liberal social norms; quite liberal criminal law; rule of law which should assure that people are treated fair; aversion to any kind of “natural order of things”. Religion in Europe has been a major influence on today's society, art, culture, philosophy and law.The largest religion in Europe is Christianity, but irreligion and practical secularisation are strong. Yet, it is unclear how much the seemingly unitary notion of (individualistic) mainstream/majority culture that is so often used in cultural psychological research conducted in the North American context can be applied to the much broader European context. Individuals from countries with more tolerant and inclusive integration policies (assessed using the 2014 Migrant Integration Policy Index) expressed lower prejudice toward immigrants. This Special Issue describes a European culture that is neither stable nor the product of a homogeneous group or pattern of intergroup relations. Although economic inequality is an emerging topic in European social psychology (e.g., Croizet, Goudeau, Marot, & Millet, 2017; Rodriguez-Bailon et al., 2017), very little research is conducted on this topic from a cultural perspective in the European context. The 19th century, also referred to as the Victorian Era, ushered in an era of unprecedented prosperity to England. Moreover, modernity invented not just Europe but a 'Eurocentric Europe', that is a Europe of exclusively Western origin, together with its own 'European' cultural tradition. Yet, they also find that the national moral context affects what European identification means. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. 3 There is greater tolerance in the U.S. than in Europe for offensive speech. Germans are more supportive of the use of military force than they have been in recent years. This is surprising given the clear differences in attitudes towards inequality across Europe (Pew Research Center, 2014). In short, against the background of different national cultures, individuals from both minority and majority groups in all nations negotiate minority identification throughout their recurrent interactions. These values unite all the member states – no country that does not recognise these values can belong to the Union. Romanticism was brought as a counter reaction to the Age of Reason by falsifying reality and introducing raw intuition instead of knowledge. Furthermore, a timely issue to investigate involves the values and beliefs governing Eastern European cultures, which have recently joined the European Union. These values are an integral part of our European way of life: Human dignity Human dignity is inviolable. History of Europe - History of Europe - European society and culture since 1914: “If it works, it’s obsolete.” First reported in or about 1950, the saying neatly expressed that period’s sense of the headlong speed at which technology was changing. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Sharing links are not available for this article. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. In turn, policies that undermine multiculturalism seem counterproductive (Mahfud et al., 2018; Visitin et al., 2018). Spanish values. Social and Economic Values Free-market economies and the individual freedoms that underlie them are highly favored around the world. The last article, by van der Noll, Rohmann, and Saroglou (2018), sheds light on one of the fiercest debates about acculturation in Europe: wearing headscarves in public spaces (Helbling, 2014). If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Are these increasing expressions of nationalism the same or different from those in other parts of Europe, such as in Italy, France or Germany? Even among people who do not identify with a religion, substantial shares say they believe in fate and the soul. Currently, we are witnessing how European culture and the future of the continent in the 21st century are being negotiated. It must be respected, protected and constitutes the real basis of fundamental rights. he European Value Systems Study Group (EVSSG) was established as a Foundation in Amsterdam in 1978 to conduct a major empirical survey in 1981 of the values underlying European institutions and governing conduct (Harding 1986; Halman and de Moor … Although the idea of a European culture, with its distinct languages, philosophical, social and legal ideas, can be traced back to Antiquity, the idea of a unified European economic and political space is a post–Second World War construct. Undivided loyalties: Is national identity an obstacle to European integration? Contemporary Japan is a secular society. Firstly, age – as age increases, the more likely a respondent is to think of We seem to instinctively 'like' the individuals who share our core values and beliefs. Instead, European culture is dynamic, changing and in constant demand to adapt to novel challenges. For the most part, the participants affirm that they are quite “large consumers” of culture. Three countries in Southeastern Europe have Muslim majorities. European cultures might, due to their diversity, configure a unique form of individualism, one that differs from that found in North American cultures, for instance. Obstacles hindering access to culture include:   lack of money and time, unequal availability of cultural offers or information, psychological hindrances, etc. Interest in European cultural diversity and other European cultures. In addition to providing evidence on the link between societal level of religiosity and religious identity expression in the European context, this article also contributes to our understanding of variations in acceptance of religious expression across European societies. Majorities in 33 of 44 countries surveyed by the Pew Global Attitudes Project believe that people are better off in a free-market economy, even if it leads to disparities in wealth and income. For example, while the articles herein make significant steps toward a better understanding of what constitutes one form of shared European culture and identity, linking individuals and nations across borders, little is known about the cultural differences between different European regions. This finding suggests that, when it comes to religious issues, Europe is unlikely to constitute a homogeneous group of societies. Values and beliefs (including philosophy and religion) 9% AT (20%) RO (19%) NL (18%) - Definitions of culture also vary according to age, education and occupation - Three social and demographic factors are linked to the cultural concepts respondents hold. [1] Everyone has values, but each person has a different value set. Whalers from the United States and Britain frequently sailed New Zealand waters, married or had children with Maori women, and introduced trappings of Euro-American culture, especially muskets. It is increasingly clear that societal cohesiveness and inclusion depend as much on the immigrant minorities themselves as on the majority societies. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Matthias S. Gobel, Verónica Benet-Martinez, Batja Mesquita, and Ayse K. Uskul. Who we are is always contrasted with who we are not: the outgroups (Brewer, 1999). Cultural Values in Advertisements French Ads French American Ads Ads. Although values and beliefs are interrelated since they collectively affect our attitudes, perceptions, personality, character and behavior, there is a distinctive difference between them. For example, surveys of Europeans’ political and social attitudes abound (European Commission, 2018). Values. Fleischmann and Phalet (2018) also find some cross-national variations in minority identification, which suggest that some national identities (e.g., British, Dutch) are more inclusive of Muslims than others (e.g., Belgian, German). Mahfud, Badea, Verkuyten, and Reynolds (2018) try to replicate previous research from the United States on multiculturalism attitudes in two European countries, the Netherlands and France. Above all, it seems that having positive relationships with majority culture members plays a significant role in positive outcomes of minority individuals (see also results by Fleischmann and Phalet [2018] mentioned in the previous section). Emphasizes leisure, sensuality, and appreciation for aesthetics--which are all core European values. Special EUROBAROMETER 225 “Social values, Science & Technology” Report - 2 - PRESENTATION European society is a rich cultural tapestry, made up of heterogeneous ethical, religious, historical and philosophical backgrounds, which can often lead to divergent positions on ethical issues in science. The findings reported in this Special Issue suggest a number of areas for future research further decorticating Europe’s culture and its implication for human psychology and behaviour. Majorities oppose same-sex marriage and say homosexuality should not be accepted by society. For Europe, this means that acculturation and inclusion of large groups of immigrant minorities, many of which from Muslim countries, can be understood from the perspective of how similar/distant these immigrant group cultures are to/from majority European cultures. Characterising European culture and its dynamics is not to claim an unchangeable essence. Surprisingly, psychological research taking European culture(s) and European identity as its focus has been rare. These European values appear to play a role at the individual as well as the national level, so that threats to the value of egalitarianism reduce identification with Europe. The main take-home message from this contribution is that European cultures share certain distinctive features, but there is also substantial diversity across European cultures with regard to facets typically associated with the individualism–collectivism framework. Post-stratification weights have been applied for country-level analysis. They have approached this question from diverse perspectives and disciplines including history, sociology and political science (e.g., Arts & Halman, 2014; Carey, 2002; Checkel & Katzenstein, 2009; Fligstein, Polyakova, & Sandholtz, 2012; Orchard, 2002). Americans tend to prioritize individual liberty, while Europeans tend to value the role of the state to … Similarly, little is known about the cultures of the Balkans, which have experienced strong influences of both the Ottoman and the Habsburg empires, and still face the ramifications of a recent war. Their study is a meaningful supplement to a cultural psychology that, for many years, has made distinctions between individualistic and collectivistic cultures (Hofstede, 2001; Triandis, 1989) and between independent and interdependent cultures (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Most notably, Americans are more individualistic and are less supportive of a strong safety net than are the publics of Spain, Britain, France and Germany. It provides insights into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. In states ... , the theory of social disorganization, theory of ‘bad apples’ and ‘bad barrel’, and rational choice theory. Health can be maintained by diet, rest, and exercise. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Of interest from a cultural psychology perspective, perceived disparities led to this disidentification, because individuals interpreted disparities as signs of Europe losing fundamental values and of losing (Spanish or Greek) national sovereignty. At its core, European culture values a unique and decontextualized individual who is egalitarian and committed to the welfare of others. Negotiations about European values are ongoing. But in three areas they are somewhat different. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. It is quite possible that specific values of a certain culture may seem worthless, abominable, deserv-ing of persecution or scorn or illogical to people from other cultures. [1] Everyone has values, but each person has a different value set. Yet, systematic investigations of European national and regional cultures are still outstanding. The second section of this Special Issue describes this match/mismatch of minority groups, as well as the different trajectories of minority groups’ acculturation in light of the diverse historical and political contexts within Europe. Similarly, books that chronicle the development of Europe and of the European countries have provided important insights into this question (e.g., Bruter, 2005; Davies, 1996). Immunizations and prevetnive practices help maintain health. . Puritanism, a religious reform movement in the late 16th and 17th centuries that was known for the intensity of the religious experience that it fostered. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Inclusive Normative Climates Strengthen the Relationship Between Identification With Europe and... Multiculturalism and Attitudes Toward Immigrants: The Impact of Perceived Cultural Distance. Finally, the study of intergroup relations in Europe (as elsewhere) has rarely used a cultural psychological perspective. The development of the English language in India was an important marker of cultural … In fact, research on culture is conspicuously absent from European social psychology (Uskul & Mesquita, 2014). Thinking concretely about multiculturalism (how it should be accomplished) evokes feelings of threat and leads to prejudice across both countries, thus replicating the North American findings. 2018b). [2] The interactive website 'Atlas of European Values' facilitates courses for secondary education and supports a better understanding of European values. Atlas of European Values unlocks the results of EVS surveys for the general public; presents values, beliefs, attitudes, and opinions through graphs, charts, and maps. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Although the intergroup relations literature proposes important theory as to what happens when members of different groups—or cultures—interact, cultural psychological research can provide important content and meaning that describe these intergroup processes for specific cultures. to position Europe as a global leader in terms of comparative social science. This is the theme of another contribution that focuses on the exclusionary/inclusionary nature of European national identities. Mahfud and colleagues (2018) replicate for France the previous finding that thinking abstractly about multiculturalism (why it would be good) reduces perceived outgroup threat. Beliefs over global warming also display large partisan differences (Kahan 2014). It is against the background of these characteristic European selfhoods and values that disidentification can sometimes be understood, too. The happiness of the individual is much more important than money. According to previous research, it seems reasonable to assert that Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western European cultures differ in their values and belief systems (e.g., House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004; Schwartz & Sagiv, 1995). As noted earlier, much of the research on attitudes toward diversity comes from North American contexts, and it is clear that Europe differs in many ways from these contexts. Some express pain loudly and emotionally when others value self-control in reponse to pain, Discourse on social values as they relate to environmental and sustainability issues has almost exclusively been conducted in a secular intellectual context. The study makes clear that North American findings related to attitudes toward diversity and multiculturalism do not always generalise to the contexts in Europe and that much might depend on historical circumstances. Overall, this article suggests that immigrant acculturation processes, including those related to negotiating multiple cultural selves and identities, are negotiated at the level of everyday relationships between minority individuals and their social environment. As a whole, interviewees (and especially citizens from the new Member States) express an interest in other Europeans and their cultures. European national states and their cultures have a long history. The Department of Sociology at Tilburg University is looking for an enthusiastic Junior researcher – project “European Values Study in the Social Sciences & Humanities Open Cloud Infrastructure” (0.8-1.0 fte for 10 months). For example, how do Mainland-Europeans with their emphasis on egalitarianism and solidarity perceive Anglo-Europeans who hold perhaps stronger beliefs in meritocratic principles? In their contribution, Fleischmann and Phalet (2018) suggest that European identity is largely seen as White and of Christian heritage, and that all those who do not meet these criteria do not recognise themselves as part of it. As far as the role of new technologies is concerned, in all countries and groups, when participants think of new technologies they almost invariably focus on the Internet. It develops social security and tries to protect the weakest. In particular when considering the Western world (with which Europe has a natural relationship), participants express and affirm a feeling of belonging to a European culture in juxtaposition to the United States. Can income inequality be associated with positive outcomes? The citizens questioned showed a broadly similar understanding of the notion of culture. These European values appear to play a role at the individual as well as the national level, so that threats to the value of … In light of the demographic changes the European continent faces, this remains one of its key challenges. Finally, against a “culture and language similarity hypothesis” that predicts that immigrants belonging to cultural groups with lower cultural and linguistic distance toward the host society will have better integrated networks, Moroccan and Pakistani participants have social networks that are more culturally well-integrated, relative to Ecuadorians and Romanians. Illness is viewed not as an alteration in a person’s physiological state, but as an imbalance between the … Their perceptions of European culture and its components that make it specific and different from other cultures. Another understudied topic is the perception of Europe by individuals who are multicultural by virtue of migration (e.g., Moroccan Germans) or through living in multilingual and multination states (e.g., Scottish in the United Kingdom, or Flemish in Belgium).