胡錦濤; pinyin Hú Jǐntāo; ur. Durch die Nachfolge in diesen drei Ämtern wurde Hu Jintao zum neuen Paramount Leader (Führer von Partei, Staat und Armee) der Volksrepublik China und gilt eher als „Hardliner“ denn als Reformer. [28] In 2003, Jiang was also re-elected to the post of Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CCP. provisorisch: Song Qingling | In addition, there was speculation that Hu delayed his orders to clamp down on the protesters until late into the evening, when the police chief was forced to act because the situation was spiraling out of control. Yang Shangkun | Umwelt und Soziales sind die neuen Themen der Kommunistischen Partei. Hu's government increased contacts with the Kuomintang (KMT), its erstwhile foe in the Chinese Civil War, and still a major party in Taiwan. Jiang Zemin | Hu Jintao | The move was seen by the Chinese public as symbolic of Hu's attitude towards corruption. Von 2003 bis 2013 war er Staatspräsident der Volksrepublik China. 1982 wurde Hu Sekretär des Kommunistischen Jugendverbandes Gansus. Hu was never a strongman, did not rule by fiat, and was often seen as first-among-equals with his Politburo Standing Committee colleagues. At the 17th CCP National Congress, Hu was re-elected as General Secretary of the Central Committee and Chairman of the CCP Central Military Commission on 22 October 2007. Der US-Präsident stand beim Staatsbesuch von Chinas Staatschef Hu Jintao vor einer komplizierten Aufgabe. [32] Hu was named the 2010 World's Most Powerful Person by Forbes Magazine. [note 1]. Following strong criticism of China for initially covering up and responding slowly to the crisis, he dismissed several party and government officials, including the health minister, who supported Jiang, and the Mayor of Beijing, Meng Xuenong, widely perceived as Hu's protégé. ", Alice Miller, "Hu Jintao and the sixth Plenum. "[37], Western criticism of Hu, particularly regarding human rights, exposes his hypersensitivity to social stability but does not lay as much emphasis on his fresh commitment to address China's multi-faceted social problems. Zuvor hatte sein zehn Jahre älterer Vorgänger Hu Jintao die Position geräumt. Am 15. In addition, Hu noted the need for "increased democracy" in the country. [5], Am 1. Although in the early years of his tenure Hu attempted to pioneer a form of "intraparty democracy" that called for greater participation from lower-ranked members to determine policy and select the leadership, there was little evidence of meaningful changes to the party's governing structure and decision-making process. Hu Jintao | [48], In foreign policy, Hu's critics say that his government was overly aggressive in asserting its new power, overestimated its reach, and raised the ire and apprehension of various neighbours, including Southeast Asian countries, India, and Japan. During his time at Tsinghua, he met his wife Liu Yongqing. After Chen's re-election in 2004, Hu's government changed tactics, conducting a no-contact policy with Taiwan due to Chen and the DPP's independence leanings and repudiation of the 1992 consensus. ", This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 22:38. "[31] Forbes also named him the second most powerful person in the world. [16][17][18][19], Vorsitzende: Xi Jinping. Xi Jinping, Vorsitzende: [26], On 15 November 2002, a new Hu Jintao-led Politburo nominally succeeded Jiang. Seit gut zwei Wochen sind die Parteiführer der KPC nicht mehr öffentlich aufgetreten. A number of Tibetans have long been opposed to government policy in the region. Hu Jintao - Find news stories, facts, pictures and video about Hu Jintao - Page 1 | Newser Hu Yaobang was purged in the late 1980s, due to his 'liberal' tendencies, by Deng Xiaoping, and his departure from the political scene was initially seen as unfavourable towards Hu Jintao, who drew criticism from party elders for failing to criticize the ousted reformer. Da der damalige Staatspräsident Jiang Zemin wollte, dass Hu eine aktivere Rolle in der Außenpolitik übernahm, äußerte sich Hu 1999 oft in Bezug auf das US-Bombardement der chinesischen Botschaft in Belgrad. As a result, shortly before his 50th birthday, Hu Jintao became the youngest member of the seven-member Politburo Standing Committee, and one of the youngest PSC members since the Communist Party assumed power in 1949. Though his father owned a small tea trading business in Taizhou, the family was relatively poor. [12] Soon after, he was transferred to Beijing and appointed as secretariat of the Communist Youth League Central Committee ("CY Central"). [17] Increased clashes culminated in serious rioting in Lhasa's core on 5 March 1989, five days before the 30th anniversary of the 1959 Tibetan uprising. [13] Diese Eigenschaften trugen zu Hus rätselhaftem Image in der Öffentlichkeit bei. He also cancelled many events that are traditionally practiced, such as the lavish send-off and welcoming-back ceremonies of Chinese leaders when visiting foreign lands. Hua Guofeng | ", Mulvenon, James C. "Hu Jintao and the ‘Core Values of Military Personnel.’. Rioters accused the police of shooting them arbitrarily, and the police claimed that they had acted in self-defense. One of the biggest challenges Hu faced was the large wealth disparity between the Chinese rich and poor, for which discontent and anger mounted to a degree which wreaked havoc on the Communist Party's rule. Hu Jintao (wym. Jiang Zemin | While there have been some attempts to increase transparency in the expenditures of official organs and bureaucrats, deeply entrenched systemic issues that were contributing to the growth of corruption remained unresolved. [53], Hu is married to Liu Yongqing, whom he met at Tsinghua University when they were studying there. Relations continued to be cordial between the two sides during Hu's tenure, and trade increased immensely, culminating in the signing of the preferential trade agreement ECFA in 2010. [34] He also sought to increase China's relationship with Japan, which he visited in 2008. [29]. Deng Xiaoping | Hu Jintao (pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo, pronoonced [xǔ tɕìntʰáu]; born 21 December 1942) is an umwhile leader o the fowerth generation o leadership o the Communist Pairty o Cheenae.He wis General Secretary o the Communist Pairty o Cheenae frae 2002 tae 2012, Chairman o the CPC Central Militar Commission frae 2004 tae 2012 an Preses o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae frae 2003 tae 2013. Hu's father was denounced during the Cultural Revolution, an event that (together with his relatively humble origins) apparently had a deep effect upon Hu, who diligently tried to clear his father's name. Xi fuhr die Reformpolitik seiner Vorgänger wie Hu Jintao zurück und verfolgt eine stärkere „patriotische“ Ideologisierung wie auch eine aggressivere Außen- und Innenpolitik – etwa durch eine stärkere digitale Überwachung der Bevölkerung und ein restriktiveres Vorgehen gegenüber der uigurischen Minderheit. [35] He also downgraded relations with Russia because of unfulfilled deals.[36]. In the view of the Chinese government, these philosophies, which have created a new "China Model" of governance, serve as a legitimate alternative to the West's "Democracy Model", particularly for developing countries. Die Kommunistische Partei Chinas hat Xi Jinping zum neuen Generalsekretär ernannt. Recently, China's news agency published many Politburo Standing Committee meeting details. Clear this text input. 4. During his term in office, Hu reintroduced state control in some sectors of the economy that were relaxed by the previous administration, and was conservative with political reforms. In addition, the massive corruption scandal that ensnared the military shortly after Hu's departure from office showed that Hu was unable to tackle entrenched interests in the military. The role of the Party has changed, as formulated by Deng Xiaoping and implemented by Jiang Zemin, from a revolutionary party to a ruling party. Hu was also put in charge of the ideological work of the CCP. Xi Jinping übernahm die Parteiführung von einem schwachen Vorgänger. Unlike Wen Jiabao, the Premier, he never granted a public one-on-one interview with the media. The government maintained its military build-up against Taiwan, and pursued a vigorous policy of isolating Taiwan diplomatically. Latest; Search. During this meeting, Hu and Wu agreed that both sides should re-commence official dialogue under the 1992 consensus – that "both sides recognize there is only one China, but agree to differ on its definition." Write about what he does every day and what he thinks about. Ebenso arbeitete er im Sekretariat des Politbüros, das mit dessen Tagespolitik beschäftigt war, wie auch im Medienbereich, wo er insbesondere für die Darstellung des Präsidenten in der Öffentlichkeit zuständig war. Hu and Premier Wen Jiabao inherited a China wrought with internal social, political and environmental problems. Erstmals seit zehn Jahren besuchte mit Hu Jintao Ende 2006 ein chinesischer Präsident das Nachbarland Indien. Machtwechsel: Glückwünsche für den neuen chinesischen Präsidenten X Jinping von seinem Vorgänger Hu Jintao Bild: AFP. [58][59], Former General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, "Hu Jintao" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters, Richard Daniel Ewing, "Hu Jintao: The Making of a Chinese General Secretary. So wurde Hu schon 1992 von Deng, auf Vorschlag Song Pings, als zukünftiger Parteichef ausersehen. His third and final selection, Jiang Zemin, won Deng's continued, although ambiguous, backing and was the only General Secretary in Communist Chinese history to voluntarily leave his post when his term ended. [15], Hu Jintao ist verheiratet und hat zwei Kinder. Sein Geburtshaus liegt heute unmittelbar hinter dem Hochhaus der Industrie- und Handelsbank von Taizhou. Von 2002 bis 2012 war er Generalsekretär der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas und als Vorsitzender der Zentralen Militärkommission der Oberbefehlshaber der Volksbefreiungsarmee und somit „Überragender Führer“ (von Partei, Staat und Armee) der Volksrepublik China. His mother was a teacher and died when he was 7, and he was raised by an aunt. übernahm den Familiennamen seiner Mutter, mit dem früheren Staatspräsidenten Hu Jintao hat er keine Verwandtschaft. "China under Hu Jintao. Two years later Hu was promoted to First Secretary of CY Central, thus its actual leader. Hu Yaobang, himself a veteran coming from the Youth League, could reminiscence his youth through Hu's company.[13]. Jahrestag ihrer Gründung auf dem Platz des Himmlischen Friedens. ", Miller, Alice. On 20 March 2008, the Kuomintang under Ma Ying-jeou won the presidency in Taiwan, and a majority in the Legislative Yuan. "The ideological paradigm shifts of China's world views: From Marxism-Leninism-Maoism to the pragmatism-multilateralism of the Deng-Jiang-Hu era. Xi fuhr die Reformpolitik seiner Vorgänger wie Hu Jintao zurück und verfolgt eine stärkere „patriotische“ Ideologisierung wie auch eine aggressivere Außen- und Innenpolitik – etwa durch eine stärkere digitale Überwachung der Bevölkerung und ein restriktiveres Vorgehen gegenüber der uigurischen Minderheit. The codes differ from the ideologies of his predecessors, namely, Jiang's Three Represents, Deng Xiaoping Theory, and Mao Zedong Thought in that the focus, for the first time, has been shifted to codifying moral standards as opposed to setting social or economic goals. Parteikongresses der Kommunistischen Partei am 14. Song Qingling, Staatspräsidenten: [54][55] Hu even emphasized the potential of religious communities to contribute to economic and social development under the banner of "Building a Harmonious Socialist Society. [56][57] Hu Jintao (born December 21, 1942) was China's former General Secretary. Personal. They cite, for example, that China's internal security budget exceeded its military budget during Hu's tenure as protests and other 'mass incidents' continued to increase across the country. vom 14.03.2013, 18:19 Uhr | Update: 14.03.2013, 18:45 Uhr + 0 Bild In jener Funktionärstracht hatte Mao 1949 an gleicher Stelle die Volksrepublik ausgerufen. Dezember 1942 in Jiangyan, bezirksfreie Stadt Taizhou) ist ein Politiker der Volksrepublik China. In late 1998, Hu promoted Jiang's unpopular movement of the "Three Stresses" – "stress study, stress politics, and stress healthy trends" – giving speeches to promote it. Während dieser Zeit trat er 1964 in die Kommunistische Partei Chinas ein. In March 2005, the Anti-Secession Law was passed by the National People's Congress, formalizing "non-peaceful means" as an option of response to a declaration of independence in Taiwan. In 2004, Hu gave an unprecedented showing and ordered all cadres from the five major power functions to stop the tradition of going to the Beidaihe seaside retreat for their annual summer meeting, which, before, was commonly seen as a gathering of ruling elites from both current and elder cadres to decide China's destiny, and also an unnecessary waste of public funds. So besuchte er 1981 die Zentrale Parteischule in Peking. . Dem Ständigen Ausschuss des Politbüros gehört Hu seit 1992 an. Hu Jintao, Wade-Giles romanization Hu Chin-t’ao, (born December 25, 1942, Taizhou, Jiangsu province, China), Chinese politician and government official, general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from 2002 to 2012 and president of China from 2003 to 2013. Im März 2013 wurde er von Xi Jinping als Staatspräsident abgelöst.[1]. In foreign policy, Hu advocated for "China's peaceful development", pursuing soft power in international relations and a corporate approach to diplomacy. While Hu gave some signs of being more flexible with regard to political relationships with Taiwan as in his 17 May Statement, where he offered to address the issue of "international living space" for Taiwan, Hu's government remained firm in its position that the PRC would not tolerate any attempt by the Taiwanese government to declare de jure independence from China.[38]. Am 14. August 2020 um 22:30 Uhr bearbeitet. [2] Im März 2003 wählte ihn der Nationale Volkskongress zum Staatspräsidenten und ab November 2004 übernahm er das Oberkommando der Volksbefreiungsarmee. On 28 May 2008, Hu met with KMT chairman Wu Poh-hsiung, the first meeting between the heads of the CCP and the KMT as ruling parties. Nationalen Volkskongress mit 99,7 % der Stimmen in seinem Amt als Staatspräsident bestätigt[4], wie üblich gab es keine Gegenkandidaten. Zu dieser Zeit begleitete er Hu Yaobang, den Generalsekretär der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas, auf Reisen durch das Land. [22] Song Ping, as the organization chief, recommended Hu as an ideal candidate for the prospect of a future leader. [27], The first crisis of Hu's leadership happened during the outbreak of SARS in 2003. He was also re-elected as Chairman of the PRC Central Military Commission.[30]. Some called China's political landscape during Hu's era one of "nine dragons taming the water" (九龙治水), that is, nine PSC members each ruling over their own fief. Hu's initial response was a combination of "soft" and "hard" approaches. [17] Hu experienced high-altitude sickness in June 1990, and returned to Beijing, but remained in his position for another two years, during which Hu achieved little. Hu and Wen Jiabao have also attempted to move China away from a policy of favouring economic growth at all costs and toward a more balanced view of growth that includes factors in social inequality and environmental damage, including the use of the green gross domestic product in personnel decisions. [33] Hu was listed four times (2008, 2007, 2005 and 2004) on the Time 100 annual list of most influential people. Zeng Qinghong, for example, moved from a disciple of Jiang to serving as an intermediary between the two factions. März 2013: im Amt: Siehe auch. Furthermore, the cronyism and corruption plaguing China's civil service, military, educational, judicial and medical systems sought to destroy the country bit by bit. In dieser Zeit traf er seinen künftigen Förderer Song Ping, den ersten Sekretär des Komitees der kommunistischen Partei Gansus. März 2013 wurde Xi Jinping als sein Nachfolger vom Nationalen Volkskongress zum neuen Staatspräsidenten gewählt. They have two children together, Hu Haifeng and Hu Haiqing. To many, he looks like a quiet, kindly sort of technocrat. Feiern unter chemisch gereinigtem Himmel: der chinesische Präsident Xi Jinping (Mitte) und seine Vorgänger Hu Jintao (links) und Jiang Zemin beim 70-Jahr-Jubiläum der Volksrepublik. Er räumte ein, dass das chinesische Wirtschaftswachstum „mit unmäßig hohen Kosten“ erzielt werde und die Umwelt stark belaste. Hu Jintao (chinesisch .mw-parser-output .Hant{font-size:110%}胡錦濤 / .mw-parser-output .Hans{font-size:110%}胡锦涛, W.-G. Hu Chin-t'ao; * 21. [1] These traits made Hu a rather enigmatic figure in the public eye. Hu Jintao: 15. Sein politischer Aufstieg begann in den 1980er Jahren. Hu is considered the paramount leader of China from 2004 to 2012. On the other hand, he continued to refuse talks without preconditions and remained committed to Chinese reunification as an ultimate goal.