The three most destructive raids (out of 363 that the city suffered),[7] occurred on 23 November 1943, and 3 and 26 February 1945. Nel 1991 il Senato di Berlino lanciò un bando di concorso per la ricostruzione della piazza. After a brief spell as Budapester Straße in the late 1920s (although this name was not widely recognised), on 6 February 1930 it was renamed, Königgrätzer Straße (southern portion), earlier names Potsdamer Communication and then Hirschelstraße, also running along part of the customs wall's old route, actually leading mainly south east. Among the many beer palaces around Potsdamer Platz were two in particular which contained an extensive range of rooms and halls covering a large area. Divenne famosa anche per i suoi locali a luci rosse, nonostante la prostituzione fosse severamente vietata a Berlino. [13] Whatever the casualty figures, for the second time in eight years, the "busiest and most famous square in Europe" had been transformed into a bloody battleground. 17. It was a key location that helped to symbolize Berlin; it was known worldwide, and a legend grew up around it. The second largest part went to Sony, who erected their new European headquarters on a triangular site immediately to the north of Daimler-Benz and separated from it by the re-routed Potsdamer Straße. Potsdamer Platz, meanwhile, was more or less left to rot, as one by one the ruined buildings were cleared away, neither side having the will to repair or replace them. [11] West German estimates were much higher: in 1966 the West German Ministry for Inter-German Affairs claimed that 383 people died in the uprising, including 116 "functionaries of the SED regime", with an additional 106 executed under martial law or later condemned to death, while 1,838 were injured and 5,100 arrested, 1,200 of these later being sentenced to a total of 6,000 years in penal camps. Scegli la data che preferisci e inserisci il codice sconto “BERLINO-MAGAZINE” al momento della prenotazione. Potsdamer Platz fu il luogo dove, nel XIX secolo, si realizzò un’intensa attività commerciale e culturale e ancora si conservano alcuni resti di questo sviluppo, come il primo semaforo d’Europa, che funzionava manualmente. Der Potsdamer Platz ist ein platzartiger Verkehrsknoten in den Berliner Ortsteilen Mitte und Tiergarten im Bezirk Mitte zwischen der alten Innenstadt im Osten und dem neuen Berliner Westen. What had once been a busy intersection had become totally desolate. The 1797 scheme came from the renowned Prussian architect Friedrich David Gilly (1772–1800), who proposed a monument to the former Prussian King, Friedrich II. The U-Bahn and S-Bahn were partially operational again from 2 June 1946, fully from 16 November 1947 (although repairs were not completed until May 1948) and trams by 1952. Across the complex, various artworks from the collection are installed, including pieces by Keith Haring (Untitled (The Boxers)), Mark di Suvero (Galileo), Robert Rauschenberg (The Riding Bikes) and Frank Stella (Prinz Friedrich Arthur von Homburg). After all, it had been planned and built all in one go by Johann Philipp Gerlach. Meanwhile, among the many V.I.P.s who came to look were U.S. New U-Bahn and S-Bahn lines were planned to run directly beneath almost the whole length of the axis, and the city's entire underground network reoriented to gravitate towards this new hub (at least one tunnel section, around 220 metres in length, was actually constructed and still exists today, buried some 20 metres beneath the Tiergarten, despite having never seen a train). In March 1995 he was dismantled and exhibited in the Lapidarium Berlin-Kreuzberg. It was a rival plan by gardener and landscape architect Peter Joseph Lenné (1789–1866), drawn up in 1826, that went ahead in 1828 but with modifications. Depending on the viewing direction, the image moves with you, so that a comparison between today and earlier is possible. Oggi anche il vecchio Homer potrebbe riconoscere la ‘sua’ Potsdamer Platz. The removal of the customs wall allowed its former route to be turned into yet another road running through Potsdamer Platz, thus increasing still further the amount of traffic passing through. [3], The first traffic light tower in Germany was erected at Potsdamer Platz on 20 October 1924 and went into service on 15. They had to organize the traffic, define traffic rules and select a solution to control the traffic. That on the western side was erected first, in direct response to the ban on sales of Western newspapers in East Berlin, and comprised an illuminated display board 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep, facing east, supported on three steel lattice towers 25 m high and topped by the words DIE FREIE BERLINER PRESSE MELDET (The Free Berlin Press Announces). The Soviets even took to marking out their border by stationing armed soldiers along it at intervals of a few metres, day and night, in all weathers. Proprio per la presenza di questo importante edificio, Potsdamer Platz fu martoriata dai bombardamenti dei raid alleati, soprattutto nelle fasi finali della guerra. According to one old guide book, it was never a proper platz, but a five-cornered traffic knot on that old trading route across Europe. The movie thus gives a good impression of the surroundings at the time, which are completely unlike what can be seen today. A keen lover of classical music, he had helped to choose the site because of its close proximity to the orchestra's home in the Cultural Forum. Altogether it could accommodate 4,000 guests at a time, 1,100 of these in its main hall alone. Fears that the streets would be dead after 6 pm have proven false. Daimler and Sony caused a major surprise on 2 October 2007 when both announced that they were putting their respective complexes at Potsdamer Platz on the market. Lying on this invisible frontier, Potsdamer Platz was no longer an important destination for Berliners. The fourth part is the Park Kolonnaden, a range of buildings running down the east side of the Potsdamer Bahnhof site, parallelling Daimler-Benz. A grand new Potsdam Gate formed part of the design. Back in 1797 had come the first of two proposed schemes that would have afforded the future Potsdamer Platz the appearance of a proper square. Meanwhile, in another part of the building, the Information Office of the Olympic Games Organising Committee was housed. standing for Nationalsozialist (National Socialist), i.e. It is named after the city of Potsdam, some 25 km (16 mi) to the south west, and marks the point where the old road from Potsdam passed through the city wall of Berlin at the Potsdam Gate. However, the country folk were permitted to set up trading posts of their own just outside the gates, and the Potsdam Gate especially. In New York, Fifth Avenue they found traffic light towers designed by Joseph H. Freedlander in 1922 which can be regarded as a model for the Berlin tower. This was up and running by 25 November 1950, less than seven weeks after its western counterpart, albeit for a much shorter time period. Proper dismantling of the entire wall began on 15 May 1990 and all border checks were abolished on 1 July 1990 as East Germany joined West Germany in a currency union. Hitler had big plans for Berlin, to transform it into the Welthauptstadt (World Capital) Germania, to be realised by his architect friend Albert Speer (1905–81). Consisting of a wooden palisade at first, it was later replaced with a brick and stone wall, pierced by 14 gates (later increased to 18), where roads entered the city. On the whole, however, Potsdamer Platz seems to have weathered the storm. Wine merchant Friedrich Karl Christian Huth, whose great-grandfather had been kellermeister (cellar-master) to King Friedrich II back in 1769, had founded the firm in 1871 and taken over the former building in Potsdamer Straße on 23 March 1877. The future Potsdamer Platz was most definitely outside Berlin, and therefore not subject to the planning guidelines and constraints that would normally be expected in a city keen to show itself off as the capital of an empire. After 1918 most of the tram companies joined. It then went through an odyssey of re-openings, closures and relaunches under a number of different names including Conditorei Friediger, Café Wiener, Engelhardt Brau and Kaffee Potsdamer Platz (sometimes appearing to have two or more names simultaneously), before its eventual destruction in World War II. Located 600 meters to the southeast, with a front facade facing Askanischer Platz, the Anhalter Bahnhof was the Berlin terminus of a line opened on 1 July 1841, as far as Jüterbog and later extended to Dessau, Kothen and beyond. Not a great lover of Berlin, he later built a new palace, the Sanssouci, at Potsdam in 1744–7, followed by the New Palace in 1763–9, so the road now had to be made fit for a King, plus all his courtiers and staff. There are also plans to reintroduce trams to Potsdamer Platz. The crossing required the dismantling of both the inner and outer walls and the clearance of the death zone or no man's land between the two. Politicians past and present have been accused of short-sightedness in speculating that they would. Despite all the devastation, commercial life reappeared in the ruins around Potsdamer Platz within just a few weeks of war's end. The history of Leipziger Platz has been inextricably linked with that of its neighbor almost since its creation. Another, more psychological factor that has played a part here is that a long-standing mutual distrust or antipathy felt between former East Berliners and West Berliners (Ossis and Wessis according to the well-known slang terms), is still very much in evidence in the city and elsewhere in Germany, and bold civil engineering projects and architectural statements are not going to make it go away by themselves. The crossing began operating on 11 November 1989, earlier than the iconic Brandenburg Gate crossing which opened more than a month later. This latter station benefitted greatly from the closure of a short-lived third terminus in the area – the Dresdner Bahnhof, located south of the Landwehrkanal, which lasted from 17 June 1875 until 15 October 1882. In addition, the East Berlin sign was carefully placed so that, when viewed from further away down Leipziger Straße, its display board obscured the West Berlin sign standing beyond it. Category:Potsdamer Platz in the 1930s. (It was demolished on 29 January 1953. The Alt-Bayern in Potsdamer Straße was erected by architect Wilhelm Walther (1857–1917) and opened in 1904. Potsdamer Platz Un posto unico. Tutti gli articoli che appaiono su Berlino Magazine (ex Berlino Cacio e Pepe) sono CC BY-SA 4.0, ovvero possono essere copiati e redistribuiti in ogni media, supporto e formato, anche modificati e a scopi commerciali a patto di citare autore e Berlino Magazine come piattaforma d'origine. The design also included a new look for Leipziger Platz. Surviving parts of the former Hotel Esplanade have been incorporated into the north side of the Sony development, including the Kaisersaal which, in a complex and costly operation in March 1996, was moved in one piece (all 1,300 tonnes of it), some 75 metres from its former location, to the spot that it occupies today (it even had to make two right-angled turns during the journey, while maintaining its own orientation). Tensions finally reached breaking point and a Workers’ Uprising took place on 17 June 1953, to be quickly and brutally crushed when Soviet tanks rolled in, and some of the worst violence occurred around Potsdamer Platz, where several people were killed by the Volkspolizei. Vast hotels and department stores, hundreds of smaller shops, theatres, dance-halls, cafés, restaurants, bars, beer palaces, wine-houses and clubs, all started to appear. In addition, the city's colossal pace of change (compared by some to that of Chicago[5]), had caused its chief planner, Martin Wagner (1885–1957), to foresee the entire centre being made over totally as often as every 25 years. [17], The first spade at the start of the Daimler-Benz development was turned by the Mayor of Berlin, Eberhard Diepgen, on 11 October 1993. In 1939 the S-Bahn followed, its North-South Link between Unter den Linden and Yorckstraße opening in stages during the year, the Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station itself opening on 15 April. A temporary road, lined with barriers, was created across this zone and checkpoints were set up just inside East German territory. The office and shopping complex also houses the five-star Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels.[21]. Anche questo locale era stato distrutto durante la guerra. However, despite a Woolworths store on its ground floor, a major travel company housed on the floor above, and a restaurant offering fine views over the city from the top floor, the economic situation of the time meant that it would not be followed by more buildings in that vein: no further redevelopment in the immediate vicinity of Potsdamer Platz occurred prior to World War II, and so Columbushaus would always seem out of place in that location. To be known as the Residenzkirche, it was again, never built due to lack of funds, and in any case the national fervor of the period favored the long-awaited completion of Cologne Cathedral over a new building, but Schinkel went on to become one of the most prolific and celebrated architects of his time.